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first_imgMembers of the fire brigades also try to prevent forest fires from occurring by conducting public awareness talks with members of the public. The forest fire season begins in November and lasts until June, according to David de León, spokesman for the National Coordinator for Disaster Reduction (CONRED), which is part of SIPECIF. Firefighting Brigades at the ready Since January 1, Defense Ministry brigades have assisted in extinguishing two fires: one on January 11 in Quetzaltenango and the other on January 26 in Huehuetenango. CONRED recorded 833 forest fires in the 2013-2014 season; 129 of those occurred in Petén. In the 2012-2013 season, there were 383 such disasters, 62 of which happened in Quiché. Firefighters use the best protective gear available, including helmets and goggles, masks or neckerchiefs, and leather gloves. In addition to the protective attire, firefighters also use Garmin GPS navigators, five-gallon dorsal pumps, Pulaskis with high-grade tempered steel blades, McLeod fire tools, shovels, and rakes. The National Institute of Seismology, Vulcanology, Meteorology, and Hydrology (INSIVUMEH) predicts that conditions in March and April will be ideal for forest fires to spread in Guatemala. Therefore, the service members who make up the 75 forest fire brigades have trained together with members of the other five institutions that constitute SIPECIF. These firefighting brigades are helping combat the forest blazes in a variety of ways. Firefighting brigades may have a busy spring, based on weather forecasts which predict warmer than usual temperatures. “The functions that have been assigned to the forest fire brigades are providing human resources and necessary transportation, and conducting aerial reconnaissance,” explained Infantry Colonel Hugo Rodríguez Cifuentes, chief of the press department and spokesman of the Guatemalan Army. Firefighters use the best protective gear available, including helmets and goggles, masks or neckerchiefs, and leather gloves. In addition to the protective attire, firefighters also use Garmin GPS navigators, five-gallon dorsal pumps, Pulaskis with high-grade tempered steel blades, McLeod fire tools, shovels, and rakes. The Guatemalan Ministry of Defense has mobilized its 75 forest firefighting brigades to combat the forest fires that threaten half of the country’s 22 departments. “The Troops’ work is very important because they provide support in fighting fires, and their biggest contribution is how well they coordinate the different fire brigades, due to the training they’ve received,” said Adolfo García Gamboa, national director of the National System for Prevention and Control of Forest Fires (SIPECIF). Members of the fire brigades also try to prevent forest fires from occurring by conducting public awareness talks with members of the public. “The functions that have been assigned to the forest fire brigades are providing human resources and necessary transportation, and conducting aerial reconnaissance,” explained Infantry Colonel Hugo Rodríguez Cifuentes, chief of the press department and spokesman of the Guatemalan Army. The Military is prepared to stop the forest fires, according to INSIVUMEH official César George. The Armed Forces firefighting brigades have been deployed to the Departments of Zacapa, Totonicapán, Quetzaltenango, Quiché, Petén, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Huehuetenango, Guatemala, Escuintla, and Sololá. CONRED recorded 833 forest fires in the 2013-2014 season; 129 of those occurred in Petén. In the 2012-2013 season, there were 383 such disasters, 62 of which happened in Quiché. These above-normal temperatures, together with the low humidity on the ground, increase the likelihood of forest fires, George said. The brigades use three techniques: rounds, which consists of digging a trench around the fire to keep it from spreading; backfires, where assistance is provided from the air to put out the flames; and water resources that are used in different ways to put out the fire, explained Col. Rodríguez Cifuentes. The National Institute of Seismology, Vulcanology, Meteorology, and Hydrology (INSIVUMEH) predicts that conditions in March and April will be ideal for forest fires to spread in Guatemala. Therefore, the service members who make up the 75 forest fire brigades have trained together with members of the other five institutions that constitute SIPECIF. Warm temperatures increase fire risk Firefighting Brigades at the ready These firefighting brigades are helping combat the forest blazes in a variety of ways. The role of the firefighting brigades in defeating forest fires is crucial. Each of the Defense Ministry’s 75 forest fire brigades consists of an officer and 49 troops, all of whom have received training from the National Institute of Forests (INAB) on firefighting techniques. Since January 1, Defense Ministry brigades have assisted in extinguishing two fires: one on January 11 in Quetzaltenango and the other on January 26 in Huehuetenango. The forest fire season begins in November and lasts until June, according to David de León, spokesman for the National Coordinator for Disaster Reduction (CONRED), which is part of SIPECIF. The role of the firefighting brigades in defeating forest fires is crucial. Firefighting brigades may have a busy spring, based on weather forecasts which predict warmer than usual temperatures. Temperatures from March to May are predicted to be 39ºC-41ºC in northeastern Guatemala, 38ºC-40ºC in Petén, and between 30ºC-33ºC in the Central Highlands, which includes Guatemala City, according to George. The brigades use three techniques: rounds, which consists of digging a trench around the fire to keep it from spreading; backfires, where assistance is provided from the air to put out the flames; and water resources that are used in different ways to put out the fire, explained Col. Rodríguez Cifuentes. Temperatures from March to May are predicted to be 39ºC-41ºC in northeastern Guatemala, 38ºC-40ºC in Petén, and between 30ºC-33ºC in the Central Highlands, which includes Guatemala City, according to George. The Military is prepared to stop the forest fires, according to INSIVUMEH official César George. The Armed Forces firefighting brigades have been deployed to the Departments of Zacapa, Totonicapán, Quetzaltenango, Quiché, Petén, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Huehuetenango, Guatemala, Escuintla, and Sololá. The Guatemalan Ministry of Defense has mobilized its 75 forest firefighting brigades to combat the forest fires that threaten half of the country’s 22 departments. “The Troops’ work is very important because they provide support in fighting fires, and their biggest contribution is how well they coordinate the different fire brigades, due to the training they’ve received,” said Adolfo García Gamboa, national director of the National System for Prevention and Control of Forest Fires (SIPECIF). Warm temperatures increase fire risk By Dialogo March 10, 2015 These above-normal temperatures, together with the low humidity on the ground, increase the likelihood of forest fires, George said. The forest fire brigades were created in 2001 under Government Agreement 63-2001, which created SIPECIF, consisting of elements from the Ministry of Defense, the National Council on Protected Areas (CONAP), the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources, the Executive Coordination Office of the President, INAB, and CONRED. Each of the Defense Ministry’s 75 forest fire brigades consists of an officer and 49 troops, all of whom have received training from the National Institute of Forests (INAB) on firefighting techniques. The forest fire brigades were created in 2001 under Government Agreement 63-2001, which created SIPECIF, consisting of elements from the Ministry of Defense, the National Council on Protected Areas (CONAP), the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources, the Executive Coordination Office of the President, INAB, and CONRED.last_img read more

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first_imgNew York Times 29 October 2014The gray matter of the nucleus accumbens, the walnut-shaped pleasure center of the brain, was glowing like a flame, showing a notable increase in density. “It could mean that there’s some sort of drug learning taking place,” speculated Jodi Gilman, at her computer screen at the Massachusetts General Hospital–Harvard Center for Addiction Medicine. Was the brain adapting to marijuana exposure, rewiring the reward system to demand the drug?Dr. Gilman was reviewing a composite scan of the brains of 20 pot smokers, ages 18 to 25. What she and fellow researchers at Harvard and Northwestern University found within those scans surprised them. Even in the seven participants who smoked only once or twice a week, there was evidence of structural differences in two significant regions of the brain. The more the subjects smoked, the greater the differences.Moderate marijuana use by healthy adults seems to pose little risk, and there are potential medical benefits, including easing nausea and pain. But it has long been known that, with the brain developing into the mid-20s, young people who smoke early and often are more likely to have learning and mental health problems. Now researchers suggest existing studies are no longer sufficient. Much of what’s known is based on studies conducted years ago with much less powerful pot.Marijuana samples seized by the federal Drug Enforcement Agency show the concentration of THC, the drug’s psychoactive compound, rising from a mean of 3.75 percent in 1995 to 13 percent in 2013. Potency seesaws depending on the strain and form. Fresh Baked, which sells recreational marijuana in Boulder, Colo., offers “Green Crack,” with a THC content of about 21 percent, and “Phnom Penh,” with about 8 percent. The level in a concentrate called “Bubble Hash” is about 70 percent; cartridges for vaporizers, much like e-cigarettes, range from 15 to 30 percent THC.High-THC marijuana is associated with paranoia and psychosis, according to a June article in The New England Journal of Medicine. “We have seen very, very significant increases in emergency room admissions associated with marijuana use that can’t be accounted for solely on basis of changes in prevalence rates,” said Nora D. Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse and a co-author of the THC study. “It can only be explained by the fact that current marijuana has higher potency associated with much greater risk for adverse effects.” Emergency room visits related to marijuana have nearly doubled, from 66,000 in 2004 to 129,000 in 2011, according to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/02/education/edlife/this-is-your-brain-on-drugs-marijuana-adults-teens.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=second-column-region&region=top-news&WT.nav=top-news&_r=4&referrerlast_img read more

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