March 17, 2020
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first_img Citation: Entangled Light in Bose-Einstein Condensates (2009, April 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-04-entangled-bose-einstein-condensates.html “Each atom in the BEC, being in exactly the same wavefunction, will experience exactly the same light field,” Bose explained. “They will all thereby have precisely the same interaction with the light field, unlike the case for a thermal gas, for which different atoms will be in different velocities and positions and may interact differently with the light field. All the atoms will thus go on doing the same process, namely taking a photon from the laser and churning out two photons of different frequencies. This process makes the different frequencies of light quantum mechanically correlated or entangled.”Since detecting light entanglement inside the cavity is very difficult (and not very useful, since the entangled modes should be well separated in space), the scientists explain that it’s necessary to detect entanglement in the light leaking out of the cavity. Outside of the cavity, a prism splits the leaked light into two different frequencies. Once separated, a homodyne detection measures and verifies the entanglement. The scientists expect that their proposal could be experimentally realized with current technology.The main advantage of generating entangled light with a BEC compared with bulk crystals is the control offered by the BEC method. By adjusting the strength of the atom-photon couplings, Ng and Bose explain how to control the degree of entanglement: a large number of atoms and decreased cavity decay optimizes the entanglement.“Potentially, here the degree of entanglement could be higher and it could be less noisy,” Bose said.More information: Ng, H T and Bose, S. “Entangled light from Bose-Einstein condensates.” New Journal of Physics, 11 (2009) 043009. • Join PhysOrg.com on Facebook!• Follow PhysOrg.com on Twitter!Copyright 2009 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Physicists Ho-Tsang Ng and Sougato Bose of the University College London have recently proposed a method to generate entangled light using a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in an optical cavity. If the system works, it would enable researchers to control the degree of entanglement. Entangled light, which is regarded as the ideal entity for sharing entanglement between distant parties, has many future applications in quantum communications. Ng and Bose’s study is published in the New Journal of Physics.“I would say that the significance of the work is two-fold: firstly, it provides an immediate application of a novel setup (namely the BEC in a cavity) that has been recently realized in experiments,” Bose told PhysOrg.com. “Secondly, it is the application of a mesoscopic system to do something which is normally done using a macroscopic system such as a crystal.”A Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is a group of atoms that are cooled to near absolute zero, which causes the atoms’ wavelengths to increase and overlap so that the group acts like a single atom. Although the atomic cluster has a relatively large size, it’s considered to be a single quantum state and it obeys quantum laws.In their study, Ng and Bose propose trapping a BEC in an optical cavity, where the ultra-cold atoms are trapped in a periodic potential. This scheme ensures that every atom will experience exactly the same interaction with the light field, resulting in very strong atom-photon coupling. As the physicists note, strong atom-photon couplings are extremely useful for performing quantum information processing before decoherence sets in, which has the potential for applications such as long-lived quantum memory and quantum networks for light-matter interfaces.In this case, the strong atom-photon coupling provides a method for realizing entangled light. In the configuration, a laser continuously emits pairs of photons of two different frequencies into the trapped BEC. Acting as a medium, the BEC mediates entanglement between the two photons’ cavity (light) modes. As the quantum-correlated light modes decay, they leak out of the cavity through a one-sided mirror. Explore further In Ng and Bose’s proposed scheme, a BEC trapped in an optical cavity is continuously driven by a laser that emits photons in pairs of two different frequencies. The BEC mediates entanglement between the two light modes, which are emitted through a one-sided mirror. A prism separates the two modes, and a homodyne detection confirms the entanglement. Image credit: Ng and Bose.center_img (PhysOrg.com) — When physicists entangle light, they usually use nonlinear crystals as the source. However, it’s difficult to control the entanglement generation process in a bulk crystal, and so scientists have been looking for a more fundamental source of entangled light. Now, they may have found a candidate: Bose-Einstein condensates. Teleportation method proposed by Australian scientists This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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first_img(Phys.org) —A recent study paid for by the European Commission, and conducted and published by (the non-peer reviewed site) Science-Metrix, has found that more than half (approximately 55 percent) of peer-reviewed research articles that were originally published between the years 2007-2012 can now be accessed free of charge somewhere on the Internet—a marked increase over last year when papers from just one year reached that mark, Nature blog has reported. Researchers with the study also found that approximately 13 percent of peer-reviewed research papers were published directly to open access sites in 2012. Papers first published behind paywalls make their way to open access sites only after a certain time delay, usually, the researchers report, due to authors archiving their papers themselves. More information: Report: science-metrix.com/en/publicat … ewed-journals-at-thevia Nature blog © 2014 Phys.org Citation: Study shows more than half of peer-reviewed research articles published during 2007-2012 are now open access (2014, October 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-10-peer-reviewed-articles-published-access.html Study group claims free access to research papers has reached a ‘tipping point’center_img Explore further The study was conducted as part of what is being called “open access” week, where proponents of open access use various methods to urge authors to go the open-access route. One such venture was the “Open Access Button” where users could press a button on a website to find open access papers on a topic of their choice. The idea, such proponents suggest, is to open a dialogue between authors and those who would like access to their papers without having to pay for them.The research team used special software to scrape the Internet looking for published research papers as listed by the Scopus database for the period 1996-2013. Science-Metrix officials note that the numbers are of course estimates, as their software can’t possibly find every instance of a paper. They believe the software misses approximately 5 to 6 percent of papers available. Advocates of open access suggest the numbers found by the researchers don’t mean much as the majority of articles originally published behind paywalls typically undergo a one to two year delay before being carried to open access sites—a lag that can prove important in fast changing fields.The researchers also found that open access publication tended to vary by both region and subject area—Brazil and the Netherlands, for example both had very high rates of initial open access publication—76 and 74 percent respectively and biomedical papers were shared on average, freely, far more often than chemistry papers—71 and 39 percent respectively. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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first_img When we walk fast, run or engage in other exercise, our muscles burn a lot of calories which results in the generation of heat—our bodes respond by sweating—the evaporation of the liquid helps cool us down. Birds, on the other hand, do not sweat and they are covered in feathers, two factors that would seem to make it difficult for them to keep cool during times when they are flying. Also, because they flap faster than other birds (up to 50 times a second) hummingbirds would seem to have a serious challenge in removing the heat their muscles generate. To find out how they do it, the researchers put several specimens in a wind tunnel and filmed them with an infrared camera the results of which displayed different colors on the birds’ bodies representing different temperatures.In studying the video, the researchers found that the birds tended to dissipate heat from their feet, in the areas where their wings met their bodies and around their eyes. They found that such areas showed temperature differences up to 8°C warmer than the rest of their bodies. They noted also that the heat dissipating became more noticeable as the birds reduced their flight speed and was most pronounced when the birds were hovering (they are the only birds that can do so)—they noted also that the birds lowered their feet more during these times, which allowed more heat to dissipate.Heat dissipation is critical for the birds, the team notes, and thus it appears likely they change their behavior when it is hot outside. This, they note, could spell trouble for the birds in the years ahead as the planet warms. On the left are infrared (IR) thermographic images of S. calliope flying at 0 (hovering), 6 (intermediate speed) and 12 (high speed) m s−1. On the right are three-dimensional plots of surface temperature corresponding to each of the IR thermographic images. Eye and axial HDAs are visible across the full range of flight speeds. The feet/legs are extended and visible during hovering, but are most often retracted beneath the plumage during forward flight. Credit: Royal Society Open Science (2015). DOI: 10.1098/rsos.150598 Explore further Journal information: Royal Society Open Science More information: Donald R. Powers et al. Heat dissipation during hovering and forward flight in hummingbirds, Royal Society Open Science (2015). DOI: 10.1098/rsos.150598AbstractFlying animals generate large amounts of heat, which must be dissipated to avoid overheating. In birds, heat dissipation is complicated by feathers, which cover most body surfaces and retard heat loss. To understand how birds manage heat budgets during flight, it is critical to know how heat moves from the skin to the external environment. Hummingbirds are instructive because they fly at speeds from 0 to more than 12 m s−1, during which they transit from radiative to convective heat loss. We used infrared thermography and particle image velocimetry to test the effects of flight speed on heat loss from specific body regions in flying calliope hummingbirds (Selasphorus calliope). We measured heat flux in a carcass with and without plumage to test the effectiveness of the insulation layer. In flying hummingbirds, the highest thermal gradients occurred in key heat dissipation areas (HDAs) around the eyes, axial region and feet. Eye and axial surface temperatures were 8°C or more above air temperature, and remained relatively constant across speeds suggesting physiological regulation of skin surface temperature. During hovering, birds dangled their feet, which enhanced radiative heat loss. In addition, during hovering, near-body induced airflows from the wings were low except around the feet (approx. 2.5 m s−1), which probably enhanced convective heat loss. Axial HDA and maximum surface temperature exhibited a shallow U-shaped pattern across speeds, revealing a localized relationship with power production in flight in the HDA closest to the primary flight muscles. We conclude that hummingbirds actively alter routes of heat dissipation as a function of flight speed. © 2015 Phys.orgcenter_img Australian birds feel heat of climate change (Phys.org)—A team of researchers with George Fox University in Oregon and the University of Montana has uncovered the ways in which calliope hummingbirds (Selasphorus calliope) get rid of the large amount of heat that is generated as they rapidly beat their wings. In their paper published in the journal Royal Society Open Science, the team describes their experiments and results and why they believe what they found could be problematic for the birds in the coming years. Citation: Infrared video reveals how hummingbirds dissipate heat (2015, December 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-12-infrared-video-reveals-hummingbirds-dissipate.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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first_imgIncome Inequality and White-on-Black Racial Bias in the United States: Evidence From Project Implicit and Google TrendsPaul Connor, Vasilis Sarafidis, Michael J. Zyphur, Dacher Keltner, and Serena Chen Automatic Prioritization of Self-Referential Stimuli in Working Memory Shouhang Yin, Jie Sui, Yu-Chin Chiu, Antao Chen, and Tobias Egner Several theories predict that when income inequality is higher, racism will also be higher. To test this prediction, Connor et al. analyzed income inequality and racial bias in the United States between 2004 and 2015. They used income-inequality coefficients computed from the Internal Revenue Service’s (IRS’s) Statistics of Income, measures of implicit and explicit racial bias from Whites toward Blacks obtained from Project Implicit — a large-scale online project conducted by researchers at Harvard University — and a state-level measure of the Google searches that contained racial slurs, available on the Google Trends website. By using different models to analyze their data, the authors found that within states, higher income inequality was associated with higher rates of Whites’ racial bias. This was a very small effect and was not found when racial bias was measured by Google searches. However, given that small effects can accumulate and become meaningful and given the social importance of racial bias, the authors suggest that increased levels of explicit racism should be considered a consequence of increased income inequality. People usually process information more quickly when it is related to themselves than to others (e.g., responses are faster to one’s own face than to other faces), showing a self-reference bias. To investigate whether self-referential information is also prioritized in working memory (WM), which allows us to temporarily keep information in mind for further processing, Yin et al. trained participants to form associations between colors and social labels (e.g., self, friend, stranger) and tested whether participants would prioritize the self-related color associations over the other-related color associations in a WM task. In the WM task, participants saw two colored circles in different locations and then had to decide whether a new location and a social label matched any of the two colored circles. Participants were equally accurate but faster when responding to self-related colors and labels than to friend-related or stranger-related colors and labels. This self-bias was not a product of increased attention during encoding or retrieval of the colors in the WM task. Moreover, it occurred automatically, and persisted when self-referential information was rarely presented and paying more attention to it would hurt performance on the task. This automatic prioritization of self-referential information in WM may be the basis of egocentric biases in decision making, the authors suggest. Support for Resettling Refugees: The Role of Fixed Versus Growth Mind-SetsShilpa Madan, Shankha Basu, Aneeta Rattan, and Krishna Savani Read about the latest research published in Psychological Science: What distinguishes individuals who support resettling refugees into their own countries from those who oppose it? It appears to depend in part on their beliefs in individual characteristics as either malleable (i.e., a growth mind-set) or fixed (i.e., a fixed mind-set), this study suggests. Across six experiments, Madan and colleagues showed that individuals with a growth mind-set were more likely to support their country taking in refugees than were individuals with a fixed mind-set. This was true for individuals from the United States and from the United Kingdom. When participants’ mind-set was manipulated by randomly assigning them to read a text that supported evidence either for a growth mind-set or for a fixed mind-set, their attitudes toward refugee resettling depended on the text read, indicating that mind-set can be manipulated and that it is one of the causes of support or lack of support for refugee resettling. Relative to participants with a fixed mind-set, participants with a growth mind-set were more likely to believe that refugees can assimilate to the host-country culture but less likely to believe that they should assimilate. Thus, people’s beliefs about the mutability of individual characteristics seem to be linked to their opinions about refugees’ ability to adapt to a new culture. These beliefs influence people’s support of policies regarding the resettling of refugees, which can affect the lives of the more than 3 million people who annually seek asylum. last_img read more

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first_imgKolkata: If you are planning to celebrate Poila Baisakh without having to queue outside Bengali eateries, then here is your opportunity. You can savour some mouth-watering exotic dishes right at your home with Haringhata Meat tieing up with an online shopping portal making a foray into the online sale of exotic meat from Poila Baisakh – Bengali New Year’s Day.”So far our sales were confined only to the boundaries of offline marketing i.e, through numerous Haringhata outlets spread across the state. In the era of globalization, when internet has taken over a major part of our living, we decided to tie up with a leading online portal to venture into the field of online marketing. We are hopeful of a positive feedback from consumers,” said Gouri Shankar Koner, Managing Director of West Bengal Livestock Development Corporation that sells its products under the brand name Haringhata Meat. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsThe newest venture of Haringhata will make a wide medley of tropical meat like Lean Pork, Fresh Pork, Dressed Pekin Duck, Dressed Turkey meat, Dressed Quail, lamb meat etc. available on the official website of the online shopping portal. To avail the freshest fish or meat directly from the market, a person has to place the order one day prior to the delivery by 9 pm and on the next day within two hours of procurement from the market, his/ her order will be delivered. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedExotic meat consumption is on a high and has become one of the growing markets in India. The demand for fresh meat and the lack of quality options in the traditional offline market have driven the online meat selling amongst the target customer base. The consumption of exotic meat has broken through the glass ceiling of religious firewalls and personal squeamishness in an age when 20 million Indians are travelling overseas and are spending heavily on food. It may be mentioned that the online shopping portal has been already making it big in the market of online supply of fresh fish, meat and varied items of daily needs. So, instead of burning yourself out at outdoor restaurants in this hot summer, you can just place an order online to add variety to your Poila Baisakh celebrations with delicious cuisine right at your home.last_img read more

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first_imgKolkata: The body of a youth, who was missing for the past two days, was found in river Hooghly on Wednesday. The victim’s family members identified the body on Thursday.Police said the victim, Sourav Bakuli, was a resident of Salua area near the Kolkata Airport and was the owner of a sweet shop.Investigating officers came to know from his family members that he was to get married on Tuesday and he went missing on Monday afternoon after.His family members told the police that he had left home saying that he was going to an astrologer. The astrologer had asked him to meet at Chinar Park. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsBut he didn’t return home after that. It was around two hours he had left his home, the astrologer went to his house and enquired that why he didn’t meet him at Chinar Park.The victim’s family members searched him at all possible places but they couldn’t find him anywhere. The family members had lodged a complaint and the police also initiated a search for Sourav.It was on Wednesday night, the policemen of North Port Police Station under Kolkata Police came to know that a body was found near Baghbazar canal.The body was fished out and on Thursday, the victim’s family members were asked to identify it. The victim’s family members confirmed to the police that it was Sourav’s body.The family members alleged that there is a foul play behind the incident. Police initiated a probe in this connection and questioned the astrologer.last_img read more

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first_imgAn official says four soldiers were killed in Kashmir after their vehicle was buried in an avalanche in the Himalayan region. District official Swagat Biswas says army troops have recovered the bodies of three soldiers killed in the avalanche that struck Chang La village in Leh district late on Friday. He said rescue workers were digging through snow drifts on Saturday to find the body of a fourth soldier, also feared killed in the avalanche. No other details were immediately available. Leh is about 435 kilometers (270 miles) east of Srinagar, the main city in Indian-controlled Kashmir.last_img

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first_imgIngredients :Yellow Dal (Arhar)- 75 gmsTurmeric-05 gmsGarlic-05 gmsOnion-15 gmsMustard Seeds-03 gmsCumin Seeds-03 gmsCoconut Oil-05 gmsCurry Leaves-10 gmsSalt- To TasteCoconut Paste-20gmsDry Red Chilli Whole-05 gmsPetha- 15 gmsMethod :Boil Dal, adding turmeric powder and saltAdd garlic whole, white petha (dice)Simmer till doneFor tempering, put oil in the pan followed by mustard and cumin seeds, curry leaves, dry red chilliNow add sliced onion, stir till onion turns dark pink Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Pour the tempering on the dal, adding coconut paste and lemon juiceGarnish with Curry LeavesIngredients:Lady Finger- 200 gmCoconut milk- 100mlFenugreek and Curry seeds- 01 gmCoriander Powder- 05 gmsTurmeric Powder- 05 gmsRed Chili- 05 gmsSalt- To TasteLemon Juice- 03 mlCoriander- 05 gmsCoconut Oil- 05 gmsShallot Slice (Baby onions)- 15 gmsMethod:Pour oil into the wokAdd fenugreek seeds, curry leaves followed by sliced shallot and chilliStir for 3-4 minutes till onion turns pinkAdd turmeric powder, coriander powder and then lady fingerStir for a while and then add coconut milk and saltSimmer till lady finger is cookedGarnish with fresh coriander spriglast_img read more

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first_imgPrime Minister Narendra Modi is all set to undertake yet another but by now familiar string of three-nation tour starting with China on May 14 that takes him to Mongolia and South Korea before he heads home to be in time for the celebration of his first year in office.Though Modi seldom likes to be compared with India’s first and most popular Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru who etched his name in the global arena by fostering India’s sui generis foreign policy of non-alignment, the indisputable fact is that Modi takes the task of swaying external powers seriously by his own brand of diplomacy. Also Read – Syrian army suspends ‘Aleppo fighting’In an increasingly integrated international political economy, no nation can afford to remain isolated or is found tethered to one set of big power bloc to the dismay of equally powerful blocs. After wooing the United States, Australia and European nations, not to speak of  most of the neighbouring South Asian and Indian Ocean countries, Modi is now riveting his gaze on the Middle Kingdom, to be followed by two state visits to Moscow before the end of this year! In his eclectic quest to cultivate new allies and strengthen extant ones with panache, Modi would find China a different power that has visibly but unobtrusively taken centre-stage in the comity of nations in recent years by its sheer economic heft, military clout and spreading its massive chest of foreign reserves to invest in disparate countries in Africa, South America and in Europe and in the rest of Asia, not to speak of its growing economic engagement with the United States, Russia and Japan, despite frayed relations of the past. Also Read – Alarming seismic activityA little known fact, according to China Daily, is that the trade volume between China and Russia hit $95.2 billion in 2014, well-nigh touching the $100 billion goal set for 2015 by Chinese and Russian leaders in 2011. China’s economy has crossed the $10 trillion threshold and is ranked second in the world, after the United States. No doubt, the double-digit economic expansion the Middle Kingdom had been clocking ever since Deng Xiaoping unleashed the entrepreneurial forces economy in a clever bid of guided market economy policy with maintaining the façade of state control, the results had been the envy of every country that aspires to be in the giddy growth path. But this cannot be continued for ever as the consequences of high growth had become unmanageable in terms of reckless consumption and cognate pollution that exacted human cost in terms of health-related problems. That is the reason why the Chinese Prime Minister Li Keqiang’s work plan for 2015, unveiled at the National People’s Congress in March, engineered the country’s gear shift to a “new normal” of seven per cent economic growth. Chinese scholars from the Fung Global Institute Messer Andrew Sheng and Xiao Geng contend that efforts to adjust to China’s new normal go beyond policies designed to sustain economic growth.  They said reforms must aim to underpin inclusivity, advance environmental sustainability, promote innovation and boost competitiveness. This exact four-pronged approach is the bedrock on which the new normal paradigm for development of China is being built brick by brick without any crick or concussion to the ordinary denizen or the larger economy!With China heading a brand new $50 billion global financial institution, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), it is eyeing the enormous infrastructure opportunities across developing and emerging Asia to fund through this new institution. The triumph of this new-born infrastructure bank is a testament to the world’s craving for long-gestation and capital-intensive infra projects where there are not adequate lending institutions of global genre other than the traditional ones such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank or other regional development outfit.But the latter institutions invariably imposed programme-based project lending that cost the borrowing countries dear in terms of prohibitive compliance price and resistance from local people who were ousted by such projects such as in the case of the construction of huge dams.The popularity of the AIIB, meticulously brought to being by Beijing, is seen in the fact that by mid-April a total of 57 countries were approved as founding members. Given the fact that the global economy is moving at a glacial clip with recovery remaining wobbly or rickety in most of the rich world and there is an unmet and unconscionable demand for infrastructure investment in Asia in general and India in particular, wisdom lies in New Delhi cuddling itself closely with the dragon to ensure better connectivity and enhanced self-development capability, leveraging the Middle Kingdom finances at a relatively cheaper cost.China has grandly proposed “Belt and Road” initiative that is likely to be a significant part of its economic and overseas development plans for years to come. This coupled with the Silk Road Fund for bolstering infrastructure construction and improving connectivity across the regions would help participating countries including India to benefit greatly if the bargaining parleys are held to mutual advantages. Beijing policy wonks have reassured the prospective beneficiaries of the AIIB that though China remains by far the largest fund provider for the Bank as also the “Belt and Road Initiative”, these projects have been and would be carried out in concert with other countries.Besides, China does not seek veto power in the projects, unlike the egregious examples set by multilateral lenders such as the ADB, the World Bank and the IMF. Writing in the China Daily, a researcher in international strategies at the Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in Beijing, Zhao Lei argued that “the AIIB and ‘the Belt and Road Initiative’ are new manifestation of a community of shared interests. Since the two China-led projects are opposed to hegemony and privileges, they should help establish fairness as the supreme value in Asia and beyond”. If the set values are more than the paper on which they are written and are scrupulously treasured and revered by the Chinese leadership, participating countries will have comfort enough to cozy up to the schemes to embrace them for implementation to tone up their connectivity and infrastructure development before long.As Modi meets his counterpart and also the President Xi during his sojourn in the three cities in China, he would have first-hand experience of how the Chinese leadership and the people of China will really warm up to him so that all the stakeholders for a sustainable bilateral relationship can bury the hatchet and herald a halcyon phase across a broad swathe of traditional and frontier areas for mutual gains over the long haul, policy wonks say.last_img read more

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first_imgBALURGHAT: In order to tighten security measures to stop cattle smuggling from South Dinajpur, the concerned district administration has decided to stop selling of cattle in three markets close to Bangladesh border.Sources informed that the three cattle markets are located at two blocks — Balurghat and Kumarganj. Recently, the Centre has also directed the state to stop selling to the markets, which are on or around 8 km from theBangladesh border. The owners of those markets have already received individual order copy to stop cattle sellingimmediately.Sub-divisional magistrate Balurghat, Isha Mukherjee said the direction regarding the matter has been sent to the owners and asked them to follow the norms strictly to avoid any legal procedure.last_img

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